Respiratory System Pathfinder Honour

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1. What are the structures that make up the respiratory system? Illustrate and describe the main functions of each

2. Are the right and left lungs the same? What is the anatomical difference between them?

3. What are the two main gases of the body? What is gas exchange? Describe the conductive airways up to the point of gas exchange.

4. What is an alveolus and what is its function? Illustrate an alveolus by means of drawings or figures, demonstrating the moment of gas exchange.

5. What is the main function of cilia, including motile cilia?

6. What is the relationship between cellular respiration and pulmonary respiration?

7. Explain how the circulatory and respiratory systems are intimately linked.

8. What is the importance of hemoglobin and iron for the oxygenation of the body?

9. Describe in detail the movements of inspiration and exhalation. Which is the importance of the diaphragm muscle for these movements

10. Which organ of the central nervous system controls breathing? Why?

11. What is the normal respiratory rate of: a. Newborns b. Children c. Adults

12. Define the following terms about respiratory alterations: a. Eupnea b. Tachypnea c. Bradipnea d. Dispnea e. Ortopnea f. Apnea

13. Study the following respiratory diseases and describe for each: how it occurs/is acquired, transmission (if that is the case), treatment and prevention: a. Asthma b. Tuberculosis c. Pneumonia d. Influenza / upper respiratory tract infections e. Pulmonary emphysema f. Pulmonary thromboembolism g. Pneumoconiosis h. Cystic fibrosis

14. Research the effects of smoking on the respiratory system. Present your results in one of the following ways: a. Written report, at least 500 words b. Verbal presentation, at least 5 minutes c. Display with post

15. Conduct a survey in your region or state, comparing the quality indices of the air. How can these indices be improved? What can you do to improve them?